This is a dish of moderate nutrition, suitable for weak stomachs, much praised for increasing the blood, good for the healthy and the scrawny; it is material and substance for all kinds of dishes.
Take the meat of a young, plump lamb. Cut it in little pieces and put it in a clean pot with salt, pepper, coriander, a little juice of pounded onion, a spoonful of fresh oil and a sufficient amount of water. Put it over a gentle fire and be careful to stir it; put in meatballs and some peeled, split almonds. When the meat is done and has finished cooking, set the pot on the ashes until it is cooled. He who wants this tafaya green can give it this color with cilantro juice alone or with a little mint juice.
Take the meat of a young, tender lamb, cut it in little pieces and put it in the pot with salt, coriander, pepper, a little onion juice, and what oil is necessary. Put it on a gentle fire and fry it with its oil and spices; then add enough water. Take the fat intestine and offal [reading q.mâ as qumâsh] from the intestines, remove them and tie their lower part and put a peeled, boiled egg in the tied intestine, and put over this balls of ground meat, improved with spices. Then put on top of this another egg, and a morsel of the said meat, until it is full to the top. Tie the mouth and put it in the pot, and finish cooking the tafâ yâ, and when it is done, take out the fat intestine and brown it in a frying pan with fresh oil. Then ladle out the tafâyâ, if you like it covered with beaten eggs or plain, and cut up the offal [the egg-stuffed sausage] with a sharp knife and dot the tafâyâ with the pieces. It must have meatballs and split almonds. Sprinkle it with cinnamon and lavender and present it; and if you wish, make it green with cilantro juice alone [p. 25, verso] or with a bit of mint juice.
Cook a white tafâyâ with the meat of a fat lamb, as above, and when the meat is done, take peeled, pounded almonds and put them with rosewater, thicken the cooked tafâyâ with this and it makes it whiter. It is necessary to have meatballs, and this is magnificent and regal.
Get young, fat meat and cut it in little pieces. Fry it in a clean pot with salt, pepper, coriander, a little onion, a spoonful of oil and a little water. Stir it until the water is gone, the oil hot, the meat done and browned. This is similar to the preceding.
Take the belly, small intestine, peritoneum, the meat of the chest and the tail and the fatty parts, cut it into the pot and add salt, onion, pepper, coriander, onion, and rue. Put it on the fire after cutting up some belly with meat, and make it into small, well -formed 'usbas [packets or rolls?] and add it to the rest and cook it, and when it is finished cooking, present it, God willing. If this dish is made with vinegar, the result is admirable and is a different dish.
Take young, fat meat, cut it small in a clean pot with a little salt, pepper, thyme, a little murri naqî', two cloves of garlic, and enough oil. Place it on a moderate fire and keep stirring it until it is done, and use it.
And a notable dish might result from it, God willing. It is very
nutritious, quick to digest, fortifying, good for the scrawny
[preceding 5 words not in published Arabic text] and for the
sick [literally, the braying -- the hoarse?], the aged, and
for weak stomachs. Take meat from the shoulder and the leg of a ram,
without tendons or veins, and pound it very hard. Add a little oil,
pepper, cinnamon or lavender, a little onion juice, a little salt,
another little bit of egg and a little fine flour.
[A break here: following dish is for a raisin drink]
And clean sweet raisins of twigs and dirt and wash them with water until they are clean. If you like it infused, throw into each kail of them two parts of hot water and put in a clay vessel until it boils; then strain and throw in it [p. 26, recto] honey. And if you like it cooked, place one part of raisins with three of water and take the measure with a stick, then add to the pot as much water as you wish, cook it until it returns to the measuring mark, then strain it and throw in honey and leave it until it boils, and then drink it, God willing. And in the same manner honey is cooked for drinking.
Take semolina and sift it, and take the flour and put it in a dish. Take water and sprinkle it lightly on the semolina. Then put your hand in it and gather it all up and cover it with a second dish, leaving it until it sweats. Then uncover it and mix it until it becomes like white flour [that is, the durum ground wheat should resemble soft wheat flour]. Throw oil in it, and mix it, and put in leavening and eggs, throw in a measure of five eggs and then mix the dough with the eggs. Then put it in a new pot, after greasing it with oil, and leave it until it rises. Then take almonds, walnuts, pine nuts and pistachios, all peeled, and pound in a mortar until as fine as salt. Then take pure honey and put it on the fire and boil it until it is on the point of thickening. Then take the almonds, walnuts, pistachios and pine-nuts that you have pounded, and throw all this upon the honey and stir it until it is thickened. Then take the semolina dough that was put in the pot, and make a thin, small flat cake (raghîf) of it, and put on it a morsel of this thickened paste. Then take the raghîf with your hand and turn it until it is smooth and round and bite-sized. [This sentence is in Huici-Miranda's Spanish translation but not in the published Arabic text] Make all the dough according to this recipe, until the filling is used up. The dough should be only moderately thin. Then take a frying pan and put oil in it, and when it starts to boil, throw in a piece of isfunj and fry it with a gentle fire until it is done. And if you wish to thicken with sugar, do so, and if you with to throw almonds, ground sugar, and rosewater into the filling, do so and it will come out aromatic and agreeable.
Knead flour with a little water, then complete the kneading with
oil. Then make little raghîfs (flatbreads) from a piece
of it, rolled out with a cane, some fifteen raghîfs,
which are put in the bottom of the mujabbana when it is made.
Then gather them and twist them [possibly meaning twist the
edges, sealing them] and puff them up. Then make a second batch
and open them so that they become leaves. When the cheese is put in
it, put a layer of it and one raghîf, and then a layer
and a raghîf, putting inside it about three of the
raghîfs. Crack two or three beaten eggs over the cheese,
[p. 26, verso] and also put some of the rind of the cheese in
the bottom of it [the mujabbana], as before. Then
cover it [viz. a top crust or layer of raghîfs]
and grease it all with eggs, and send it to the bread oven in a large
clay dish in which it is cooked. And if you cook fresh and clarified
butter in it and it cover it a while until it is absorbed, may it do
you much good [or: bon appetit].
[It sounds as if the raghîf called for when layering is going on may mean the compound of 15 raghîfs made earlier, only there seem to be three batches of this rather than two. I suspect the cheese is mixed with egg before being put in; but most recipes are more explicit than this when it comes to cheese, saying whether to grate or crumble or cut it (and calling either for old or for fresh cheese). "Greasing it all with eggs" may be like the modern practice of putting an egg wash on a crust.]
Knead dough on the pattern of the cheese pie dough; if you want it leafy (muwarraqa), [good,] and if you want it "abridged" (mukhtasara), [good]. Make a loaf as we have described for the cheesecake. Take chicken or whatever you want, clean it and cook it in a pot with water and salt, and do not overcook it. Pound an onion with cilantro and coriander and pepper; put all this in a ceramic frying pan with some oil, a spoonful of murri and two of oil on the fire and stir until it is done exceedingly. Take two eggs and crack them into the frying pan on the fire and stir it until the broth is clarified. Then take it from the fire, and when it is cool, take the pullets and cut in halves, and put them in the crust already made. Take egg yolks and put them in, cover it with a top crust made for it, garnish it with egg yolks, and put it in the oven in a pot, God willing.
Knead dough according to the recipe for cheese pie; and take fish, clean it inside and out, wash it, and drain the water. Take onion juice and cilantro juice and mix in spices, pepper and myrobalan [? hîlaj for ihlîlaj?]; beat it in a dish in which has been put a spoonful of murri, another of oil, and four eggs. Put the fish in this dish, cover it with its crust and send it into the oven. He who wishes to make this without spices, makes a pie shell as large as the fish and places the fish in it, throws in plenty of pepper, after greasing it with oil, covers it, and sends it to the oven, God willing.
Take flour and knead it until it is soft, and add oil so it will be smooth, put in leavening and then take the dough, roll it out, make its edges thin, and fold it, seal [the edges by twisting], and puff it up until the air enters the sides. Then close both ends with your hand and make a thick loaf; put it in a ceramic frying pan and pour in two spoonfuls of oil, and put the fingers over the bread, so that it is oiled, like mudâhan [Andalusian dialect for "oiled"; or possibly mudâhin, literally, the flatterer]. Put the bread in the oven and when it is cooked, put it in a glazed dish; get honey and cook it with some [p. 27 recto] pepper, and pour this over the bread, God willing.
Take three ratls of white flour and knead it with a
ratl of butter and when the mixing is complete, leave it to
rise and make bread from it; send it to the oven in a dish and when
it has cooked, turn it on the other side in another dish and return
it to the oven. When it is thoroughly cooked, take it out of the
oven, then cover it a while and present it.
[Title missing here]
Sift white flour three times, take the choicest part, mingle it with butter and knead it with egg yolk and put into the dough some saffron and salt. Put clarified butter into an earthenware frying pan, boil it and take one kail of honey and one of dough and throw them into the melted butter until it is cooked. Before it is thickened, put in blanched almonds and pine-nuts, sprinkle it with pepper and present it.
Put a potful of water on the fire until it boils, and throw in
coarsely ground semolina, and cook it on the fire until it becomes
pudding ('asîda). Then take it out of the pot and put it
in a dish; boil honey and pour it on top, with pepper, and present
it, God willing.
[This is an aberrant recipe. Qataif are basically crepes, very thin breads or things made from them.]
Take a ratl of sugar and put in two ûqiyas of rosewater and boil it in a ceramic pot until it is on the point of thickening and sticks between the fingers. Then take a third of a ratl of split almonds, fried, not burnt, and pound well and throw the sugar on them and stir it on the fire until thickened. Then spread it out on a dish and sprinkle it with ground sugar.
Take a ratl of sugar, pound and sift. Take a third of a ratl of fresh oil and put it in an earthenware pot, and when it is on the point of boiling, throw in a third of a ratl of white flour and two ûqiyas of breadcrumbs from white wheat or semolina, and stir it two or three times. Throw in the sugar and two ûqiyas of rosewater and scrape it [yuhakk; if not an error for yuharrak, stir it ] until the oil appears as a ring and the fâlû dhaja (pudding) appears combined and coagulated. Take it off the fire, remove the oil and present it, God willing.
Take half a ratl of sugar and one third ratl of the crumb of bread made of white flour. Pound the sugar and mix with the crumb and put in three eggs. Heat in an earthenware pot half a ratl or less of fresh oil, and when it has boiled, throw in the sugar and breadcrumbs and eggs. Stir it on the fire until it is cooked and intertwined, then leave it and sprinkle it with ground sugar.
Take half a ratl of sugar and put it in a metal or earthenware pot and pour in three ratls of juice of sweet table pomegranates [rummân sufri; probably tart pomegranates were more common in cooking] and half an û qiya of rosewater, with a penetrating smell. Boil it gently and after two boilings, add half a mudd of semolina and boil it until the semolina is cooked. Throw in the weight of a quarter dirham of ground and sifted saffron, and three û qiyas of almonds. Put it in a dish and sprinkle over it the like of pounded sugar, and make balls [literally, hazelnuts] of this.
Take half a ratl of sugar and throw in three û qiyas of water, boil it on a fire and then add three û qiyas of starch and a third of a ratl of fresh oil. Boil it until the oil spits ["pelts"], and then strain off this oil and pour in some almond flour and take it up, if God wills.
Take good, fat meat and put it in a pot with a whole onion and pepper. Dissolve some honey in water and cover the meat with it until it is excessively cooked. Break the khabîs and throw it in the pot and throw it in with some saffron, and when it is done, carry the pot from the fire and leave it until the fat departs, and do not make a dough (a covering) for it.
Boil eggplants and remove its flavor from the upper peel, pound all that flavor and put into a kettle a spoon and a half of oil, two of murri, pepper, caraway, some well-pounded onion, and salt. Put it on the fire and when it has boiled, throw in the pounded egg plants and stir it little by little, and when it is done, cover the contents of the pot with eggyolks and cover them with eggwhites, crumbs and walnuts, and when it is put into a dish, sprinkle it with pepper and cut rue over it.
Take as many eggs as you like, and boil them whole in hot water; put them in cold water and split them in half with a thread. Take the yolks aside and pound cilantro and put in onion juice, pepper and coriander, and beat all this together with murri, oil and salt and knead the yolks with this until it forms a dough. Then stuff the whites with this and fasten it together, insert a small stick into each egg, and sprinkle them with pepper, God willing.
Take a chicken or taihûj partridge or black partridge or rump of veal, whichever of these is possible, and joint. Put in a pot [p. 28 recto] and put with it cilantro juice, cover it with concentrated ["evaporated"] vinegar, and put in sour apples, peeled and seeded, and their seeds are moderately cut up, and some Chinese cinnamon, cloves, ginger, and white pepper. Then take as much as you like of eggyolk, and beat with it enough to coat the cooked chicken, and cover the contents of the pot with it, and ladle it out. Sprinkle it with some spices and present it, God willing.
Take meat of a young animal, cut it and put it in a pot and put in enough vinegar to cover it, put in raisins depending on how sour you want it to be and boil it with them. Then throw in the necessary amount of pepper and coriander, an onion pounded with cilantro, salt, and a clove of garlic. Cook this until it is done, then take boiled egg yolks and grind them with the heart of clean, soaked bread, and cover the contents of the pot with this, leave it until it is good, empty it out and present it.
Cut meat from the chest, the kidneys, the ribs, and the like; put
it, after washing it, into a pot and cover it with water. Throw in
two spoonfuls of oil and a ratl of honey. Then put it on the
fire and grind a dirham of saffron and mix it in. When the
meat is done, take it out to the euphorbia embers [misspelled as
"morning"], then take khubaiz [scribe erroneously
writes khabîs, pudding], pound it and put it in the
pot, stir it little by little and when the khubaiz
[khabîs] is done, take it down to a clay dish,
sprinkle it with fine spices, and present it, God willing.
[See below for the Khubaiz recipe: it's a crepe of fried starch, or possibly just freshly made starch itself.]
Take sugar and pound sweet almonds well; take equal parts of each in a mortar and mix them and knead them with fragrant rosewater, and perfume them with fine spices, like cinnamon, Chinese cinnamon, lavender, pepper, galingale, and nutmeg. Add these in proportion to what the sugar and almonds can bear. Beat all this well and the kneading will be stronger. Then make small rings of this in the shape of ka'k. Then take a ratl or half a ratl of fine flour or as much as the sugar and crushed almonds can bear, knead it with khubaiz and salt and leave it until it rises. Then take some starch and put into that starch the dough with water. Then take a frying pan and clean it well and put in some fresh oil, and if it is oil of sweet almonds, it is better. Put this on the fire and when the oil boils, take the rings made before, [p. 28 verso] one after another, and dip [reading ghumisat for hummisat] them in that dough and throw them in that boiling oil, so that they cook before they are taken out, and they have begun to brown a very little. Arrange and order them on a dish in an attractive order. Then pour over them skimmed honey from the comb, or well-thickened julep syrup [i.e. rose-flavored sugar syrup], and sprinkle with ground sugar and present it, God willing.
Take what you will of white flour or of semolina, which is better in these things. Moisten it with hot water after sifting, and knead well, after adding some fine flour, leavening, and salt. Moisten it again and again until it has middling consistency. Then break into it, for each ratl of semolina, five eggs and a dirham of saffron, and beat all this very well, and put the dough in a dish, cover it and leave it to rise, and the way to tell when this is done is what was mentioned before [it holds an indentation]. When it has risen, clean a frying pan and fill it with fresh oil, then put it on the fire. When it starts to boil, make braids of the leavened dough like hair-braids, of a handspan or less in size. Coat them with oil and throw them in the oil and fry them until they brown. When their cooking is done, arrange them on an earthenware plate and pour over them skimmed honey spiced with pepper, cinnamon, Chinese cinnamon, and lavender. Sprinkle it with ground sugar and present it, God willing. This same way you make isfunj, except that the dough for the isfunj will be rather light. Leave out the saffron, make it into balls and fry them in that shape, God willing. And if you wish stuffed dafâir or isfunj, stuff them with a filling of almonds and sugar, as indicated for making qâhiriyât.
It is made with semolina, the same as before to the letter. Add some clarified butter, and to every ratl put in four or five eggs as we have said, and go on beating it continuously with water and butter until all the lumps are gone. Take a new, glazed pot with a belly and a neck, and sprinkle it with oil and butter until it is soaked. Then place the dough in the pot, only to the neck, and take a segment of cane, pierced at both ends, and place it in the middle of the pot, having greased it with clarified butter. Then leave the dough to rise, and the sign that it is done is making an indentation in it, as we have said. .. . [p. 30 recto] And when it rises, send it to the oven, put it far from the fire, and leave it until it is cooked and browned. When it comes from the oven, shake the pot well and carefully to separate the head from it. Then break it little by little so that the shape comes out in its proper form, and if it resists, pour in some honey and clarified butter, and continue being careful with it until it comes out whole, for the intent in this case is that it come out in the form of a human head. Then have care also in removing the cane, and fill the hole with honey and clarified and fresh butter, and put it, just as it is, in a dish and stick peeled pine-nuts and pistachios in it. Then pour melted clarified butter over it, sprinkle it with ground sugar and present it, God willing.
Take a ratl of wheat flour and knead it with twenty egg yolks, a little water and oil. Then make small, very thin round flatbreads of it, and as soon as they are made, fry them in plenty of oil until they are close to browning. Put them in a dish, boil honey a little and clean it of its foam, and cut almonds and walnuts into the honey, pour it into the dish, sprinkle with sugar, set whole pine-nuts about, and present it.
Take a ratl of wheat flour and knead it until it is a
little soft, then mash it with half a ratl of clarified
butter, water and ten eggs, and beat all this together gently until
Then take a young pigeon and clean it, take out its innards and pound with a little onion, breadcrumbs and peeled almonds. Beat together five eggs, pepper, cinnamon, Chinese cinnamon, lavender, and some cilantro juice. Fill the young bird with this, insert a boiled egg in the stuffing and sew it up; put it in a pot with water, salt and oil. And when it is cooked, take a second pot with belly and neck, and put oil and rosewater in it; make meatballs of mutton or of chicken breast and cook with the necessary salt, water, crushed onion, citron leaves, and fennel stalks until it is cooked, and when it is done, cover the contents of the pot with six eggs, cold breadcrumbs, and wheat flour. Make four stuffed eggs and dot yolks over them, and when the cooking is done and the covering is wrinkled, take a frying pan to a weak fire with some oil, beat an egg with some pepper and salt, and spread it over the frying pan, which should be temperate of heat, until it fries and becomes very thin. Loosen it and put it in the bottom of the dish and make another egg [p. 30 verso] according to the same recipe. Then ladle the almonds and put the [egg] raghîfa (into the dish) and garnish with its meatballs and stuffed eggs, after cutting the latter in fourths. Put the stuffing between these and cover with another [egg] raghîfa so that none of the almond shows, and plant "eyes" of mint in it, and toasted almonds and pistachios, and present it, God willing.
Joint the partridge after cleaning it and put it in a pot. Throw in half a spoonful of vinegar, a spoon of oil, an eighth of a dirham of saffron, pine-nuts, crushed onion, spices, pepper and a dirham of Chinese cinnamon. Beat meatballs made from another partridge with sufficient salt and water; put it on a moderate fire and when it is done, cover the contents of the pot with four eggs and a little white flour, and take it out to the hearthstone so that the dough wrinkles. Hard-boil two eggs, ladle it out, and garnish it with the meatballs and yolks. Cut up two eggs fine and sprinkle them on the surface of the dish. Sprinkle it with fine spices and present it, God willing.
Take the meat of a goat kid, from its breadth (?) and its stomach,
a piece from the navel, from the liver, and from the tender parts of
the meat in the amount of a quarter ratl. Cut it in small
pieces and put them in a pot in which you have thrown everything that
is in jimliyya, to the letter, and let there not be much
sauce. Cook it until the meat is done, and when it is done, take it
to a cutting-board and cut it up fine as for sanbusak and
finer. Put it in a dish and ladle some of the fat in which you cooked
it before, and throw it on top. Then season it with spices, such as
pepper, Chinese cinnamon, galingale, lavender and the like. Break
three eggs over it, beat it well, and salt to taste. Then take the
and throw in oil, and turn it until it absorbs all the oil, and get
all the yolk of a raw egg and throw it in the bottom of the
qâdûs. Open the lid and bury it in it. Take that
stuffing, as it is, and put it into the qâdûs over
the eggyolk, gently so as not to break the yolk. Keep boiling it
until you think the stuffing has bound and browned well on all sides;
and keep taking care that it not burn and ruin its flavor and become
hard to separate from the qâdûs. Then take off the
lid and pour over the qâdûs the amount of one
spoonful of strong vinegar, and boil it little by little until its
boiling settles down. Then put it [p. 31, recto] in water
until it cools, and turn it over onto a clay dish on its mouth, and
shake it until it comes away from the qadus and remains stiff
in the middle of the lid, with the yolk on top of it, and present it,
[A sort of meatloaf. My guess is that the bucket is clay, like a flowerpot. It absorbs oil but apparently can be put on a fire.]
Make meatballs, in the way that they are made, with onion juice, a little cilantro juice, murri and spices. Beat them with eggwhite and then take a small, new pot, put in crushed onion with cilantro, salt, two spoonfuls of vinegar and one of the best murri, pine-nuts, a dirham of Chinese cinnamon, pepper, cinnamon, spices and a little water. Take this to the fire until it boils gently, and then make meatballs of the minced meat and throw them into the pot and boil until most of the water is gone. Cover the contents of the pot with two eggs and breadcrumbs and put on the eggyolk until the stuffing thickens. Then take the qâdûs and put oil on it, and you will have pounded meat well, as prescribed for the meatballs with cilantro juice, and beaten it with water, two or three eggs and a little white flour, put a little of this in the qâdûs and take out the meatballs in the pot and put them in the qâdûs over the ground meat and put on top of the rest of the ground meat. Cover it with a lid and watch the cooking carefully. When it is browned, put the qâdûs in cold water until it has cooled. Then empty it into a dish and throw the sauce and the remaining stuffing over and around it, and cut rue-leaves over it, sprinkle with pepper, cinnamon, and Chinese cinnamon, and serve it.
Empty its interior of everything in it, and clean it, and cut off its extremities and put them aside. Then take its small intestine and make small clean 'usbas of it. Turn the large intestine inside out and clean it and cut it small. Then take enough cheese for the lamb, and crumble some of it and prepare as for a mujabbana. Flavor with much pepper, cinnamon, Chinese cinnamon, cilantro juice, onion juice, "eyes" of mint and as many eggs as it will take, and beat gently. And split its pieces of meat like bishmât [?perhaps baqsimat, a kind of crouton or hardtack] or wider. Insert the stuffing into the lamb with the tendons and cut-up gut. Assess its meat [scribe erroneously wrote "salt," as in several other passages] and peel its sides and insert pieces of cheese in it. And put stuffing around them [the pieces of cheese] as well. Beat the remaining stuffing with eggs and add flavorings with cilantro juice and throw on the lamb in a big tajine. Heat the tannur, and when it's hot, remove the coals and put them down on the hearthstone. Sprinkle with a little [p. 31, verso] water, then put the vessel [a container for holding things put in the tannur?] in the tannur and put the tajine in it. Seal the tannur with clay. Open its lower aperture and examine, and when it is browned and done, remove and put in a big bowl and serve. And if it is cooked in the bread oven, it also comes out good.
Take fat meat [from] the neck, breast, short (?) or
shoulder, and cut small and fine. Take the coarse paunch, large
intestine and bowels and cut small, and put in a pot with onion
water, and turn it around in it so that it absorbs it.
[Probable break; following looks like a continuation of the "Stuffed Monkey's Head" above.]
Take some dough and put it in the lowest part of the pot, and put a small bird in it and put the rest of the dough on it, and let it rise a while, and send it to the oven. And when it is cooked, break the pot, after shaking it several times so that the dough is freed from the pot, and put it in a plate, whole, as it is. And boil clarified butter and honey and pour it on it, and decorate with toasted pine nuts and sprinkle with sugar and present, God willing.
And It Might Be Made Another Way
Which is that the small bird is disjointed and put in a pot with salt and grated onion and oil, and cooked until done. Then take it out and put it in a frying pan with juice of cilantro pounded with a piece of onion and spices and pepper, cinnamon, lavender, Chinese cinnamon, cloves and galingale [literally, "wood"] and a little musk and rosewater. Pound with eight eggs and boil until thickened and browned. Put in best murri, then take from the fire. Take peeled almonds, pistachios and sugar and pound, and spice it, and knead with rosewater and musk, and knead the dough as mentioned before. Put some of it [the dough] in the bottom of the pot and put in it half the first stuffing, then put on it a little dough, then put the sugar and almond stuffing, and put a little of the dough on it too. Put on it the rest of the first stuffing and fill the pot with the rest of the dough.